Background: Early identification of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk for heart failure (HF) remains critical for improving their outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether indices of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) can stratify AF patients without clinical history of HF. Methods: We extracted 1775 patients’ data from a prospective cohort that consecutively recruited recently recognized AF patients with ejection fraction ≥50%. We categorized patients as LVDD grade 0 (none) to 3 (severe) based on mitral deceleration time and E/e’ per the American Society of Echocardiography recommendation. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, stroke, and HF hospitalization during the 2-year follow-up. We also investigated the Atrial Fibrillation Effects on QualiTy-of-Life (AFEQT) scores. Results: Overall, 857 (48.3%) had mild or higher LVDD. Incidence of primary outcomes increased in parallel with LVDD grading (1.8%, 2.8%, 6.5%, and 8.1% for grades 0–3, respectively, p < 0.001), and the presence of grade 3 LVDD was an independent predictor of the primary outcome (adjusted HR 2.28 (vs. grade 0), 95%CI 1.13–4.60). Furthermore, patients with LVDD had lower AFEQT scores at the enrollment and 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: LVDD indices were associated with adverse clinical outcomes and patients’ perceived health status in a recently diagnosed AF cohort without HF.
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