This paper presents limit loads for circumferential cracked pipe bends under in-plane bending, based on detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analyses. FE analyses are performed based on elastic-perfectly-plastic materials and the geometrically linear assumption. Both through-wall cracks and part-through surface cracks (having constant depths) are considered, together with different crack locations (extrados and intrados). Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations are proposed for plastic limit loads of pipe bends. It is found that limit loads of pipe bends are smaller than those of straight pipes, but are close for deep and long cracks.
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