Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induces acute and lethal toxicity at high concentrations. However, no specific antidotes for H2S poisoning have been approved. Liposomal methemoglobin (metHb@Lipo) was developed as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. As the toxic mechanism of H2S poisoning is the same as that of cyanide poisoning, metHb@Lipo could potentially be used as an antidote for H2S poisoning. In this study, we evaluated the antidotal efficacy of metHb@Lipo against H2S poisoning. Stopped-flow rapid-scan spectrophotometry clearly showed that metHb@Lipo scavenged H2S rapidly. Additionally, metHb@Lipo showed cytoprotective effects against H2S exposure in H9c2 cells by maintaining mitochondrial function. MetHb@Lipo treatment also improved the survival rate after H2S exposure in vivo, with the maintenance of cytochrome c oxidase activity and suppression of metabolic acidosis. Moreover, metHb@Lipo therapy maintained significant antidotal efficacy even after 1-year-storage at 4–37 °C. In conclusion, metHb@Lipo is a candidate antidote for H2S poisoning.
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