Integration of information processed separately in distributed brain regions is essential for brain functions. This integration is enabled by long-range projection neurons, and further, concerted interactions between long-range projections and local microcircuits are crucial. It is not well known, however, how this interaction is implemented in cortical circuits. Here, to decipher this logic, using callosal projection neurons (CPNs) in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex as a model of long-range projections, we found that CPNs exhibited distinct response properties and fine-scale local connectivity patterns. In vivo 2-photon calcium imaging revealed that CPNs showed a higher ipsilateral (to their somata) eye preference, and that CPN pairs showed stronger signal/noise correlation than random pairs. Slice recordings showed CPNs were preferentially connected to CPNs, demonstrating the existence of projection target-dependent fine-scale subnetworks. Collectively, our results suggest that long-range projection target predicts response properties and local connectivity of cortical projection neurons.
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