Aim: To examine the association between long-term exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and cardiovascular mortality in Japan after controlling for known major confounding factors among a large middle and elderly cohort study in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Methods: We followed 91,808 residents (men 34%) who undertook a national health check-up at age 40–79 years for 17 years (1993–2010). Two different exposure indices were adopted: baseline SPM concentration (in the year 1990) and average SPM concentration for the first (average of 1990 and 1995) and the second half (average of 2005 to 2009) of the study period. Sex-specific adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for cardiovascular mortality were calculated using general mixed Poisson regression models after adjusting the age, BMI, history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, creatinine, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, and temperature. The variation between seven medical administration areas was also taken into account as a random effect. Results: Baseline SPM concentration was associated with an increased risk of mortality from all cardiovascular diseases, coronary artery disease, and stroke. The adjusted RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) per 10 µg/m3 increase in SPM concentration for all cardiovascular mortality were 1.147 (1.014–1.300) for men and 1.097 (0.985–1.222) for women. The point estimate of RR was highest for non-hemorrhagic stroke in men (1.248 [0.991–1.571]), although CI overlapped the unity. The RRs seemed slightly lower in the second half than in the first half, though the CIs widened in the second half. Conclusion: Our results suggest that long-term exposure to SPM is associated with an increased risk of all cardiovascular mortality for men in Ibaraki, Japan.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical