Background: There are many scores and markers that predict poor outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, parameters that can predict outcomes in patients with SAH with high specificity and sensitivity, which can be identified in the early postictal state and utilized as a clinical marker of early brain injury (EBI) have not been identified so far. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with SAH due to a saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the relationships between patients' baseline characteristics and patients' outcomes to identify parameters that could predict patient outcomes in the early postictal state. Results: In the univariate analysis, older age (>65), loss of consciousness (LOC) at ictus, poor initial World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (3-5), and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) were associated with poor outcome (GOS 1-3). Statistical analyses revealed that combined LOC at ictus and/or poor initial WFNS grade (3-5) was a more powerful surrogate marker of outcome (OR 15.2 [95% CI 3.1-75.5]) than either LOC at ictus or the poor initial WFNS grade (3-5) alone. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that older age, combined LOC at ictus and/or poor initial WFNS grade, and DCI were independently associated with poor outcome. Conclusion: Combined LOC at ictus and/or poor initial WFNS grade (3-5) reflects the impact of EBI and was a useful surrogate marker of poor prognosis in SAH patients, independent of patients' age and state of DCI.
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