Objective: Primary osteosarcoma of the jaw bones is very rare, and histological features of gnathic osteosarcoma remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinicopathological features of gnathic osteosarcoma. Materials and methods: Seven cases of gnathic osteosarcoma from Japan diagnosed during the period between 2000 and 2016 were examined retrospectively. The histology of the surgical pathology materials was reviewed by two pathologists. Clinical information was obtained from the hospital's information system. Results: Of the seven cases, two patients had secondary osteosarcomas. As for the five cases of primary osteosarcoma, their ages ranged from 26 to 58 years (mean: 36.2, median: 28). Histologically, three cases were fibrotic tumors composed of spindle-shaped cells with mild to moderate nuclear atypia and the collagenous stroma accompanied by woven bones or mature lamellar-like bones. Two cases had cartilage formation. MDM2 and CDK4 expression was observed in two out of three cases on immunostaining. The histopathology of these three cases was regarded as the counterpart of low-grade osteosarcomas, namely, parosteal osteosarcoma and low-grade central osteosarcoma, arising in long bones. Conclusions: The surprisingly high incidence (60%, 3/5 cases) of low-grade osteosarcoma explains the reason why gnathic osteosarcomas present a more favorable prognosis than osteosarcomas arising in long bones. Furthermore, it provides insight into the tumorigenesis mechanism of low-grade osteosarcomas arising in the jaw and other sites.
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