Objective: To clarify relevant proteins and clinical characteristics of a phenotype of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) with lymphadenopathy. Methods: We enrolled patients newly diagnosed with IgG4-RD in our department between January 2000 and June 2018 and performed proteomic analysis to measure serum concentrations of 1305 proteins. We extracted proteins overexpressed in patients with IgG4-RD with lymphadenopathy by comparing between those with lymphadenopathy, those without lymphadenopathy and healthy controls. We further reviewed all the patients with IgG4-RD in our institution and investigated the characteristics and prognosis of the patients with IgG4-RD with lymphadenopathy. Results: Eighty-five patients with IgG4-RD were enrolled, of which, 55% had lymphadenopathy. Proteomic analysis in 31 patients with IgG4-RD and 6 healthy controls revealed that eotaxin-3 was a potential serum biomarker in the patients with lymphadenopathy versus those without lymphadenopathy and healthy controls. A cohort of 85 patients with IgG4-RD demonstrated that patients with lymphadenopathy showed a significantly higher serum IgG4, IgG4:IgG ratio, IgG4-RD responder index and eosinophilia (P < 0.001 for all), irrelevant of the extent to which organ involvement developed. Patients with lymphadenopathy treated with glucocorticoid alone relapsed with significantly higher rates than those without lymphadenopathy (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Lymphadenopathy in IgG4-RD represents a phenotype associated with high disease activities, eosinophilia and relapsing disease. Eotaxin-3 is a novel biomarker related to IgG4-RD with lymphadenopathy.
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