Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple bioactive phospholipid with diverse physiological actions on many cell types. LPA induces proliferative and/or morphological effects and has been proposed to be involved in biologically important processes including neurogenesis, myelination, angiogenesis, wound healing, and cancer progression. LPA acts through specific G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane domain receptors. To date, three mammalian cognate receptor genes, Ip(A1)/vzg-1/Edg2, Ip(A2)/Edg4, and Ip(A3)/Edg7, have been identified that encode high-affinity LPA receptors. Here, we review current knowledge on these LPA receptors, including their isolation, function, expression pattern, gene structure, chromosomal location, and possible physiological or pathological roles.
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