To explore predisease biomarkers, which may help screen for the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at very early stages, macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length were analyzed. Thirty late AMD fellow eyes, which are at high risk and represent the predisease condition of AMD, were evaluated and compared with 30 age-matched control eyes without retinal diseases; there was no early AMD involvement in the AMD fellow eyes. MPOD was measured using MPS2® (M.E. Technica Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and PROS length was measured based on optical coherence tomography images. MPOD levels and PROS length in the AMD fellow eyes were significantly lower and shorter, respectively, than in control eyes. MPOD and PROS length were positively correlated in control eyes (R = 0.386; p = 0.035) but not in AMD fellow eyes. Twenty (67%) AMD fellow eyes met the criteria of MPOD < 0.65 and/or PROS length < 35 µm, while only five (17%) control eyes did. After adjusting for age and sex, AMD fellow eyes more frequently satisfied the definition (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 3.50–60.4; odds ratio, 14.6). The combination of MPOD and PROS length may be a useful biomarker for screening predisease AMD patients, although further studies are required in this regard.
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