The key-point of haptics is to realize a vivid presentation of reactive force, particularlly in applications that involve touching action. The goals of bilateral teleoperation are considered as the following two points. One is a reproduction of environmental impedance in master side. The other is a realization of small operational force. Corresponding to these goals, two novel evaluation indices are defined which are named "reproducibility" and "operationality". Bilateral controller based on the indices can be designed in the virtual mode space; common and differential modes. Our research group has successfully generated a good realization of reactive force for slave side at master side in bilateral force control. This haptic feedback has been implemented in the medical forceps. Proposed bilateral forceps system will be a fundamental technology for evolution of haptic devices.
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