This paper discusses state-of-the-art tactile displays fabricated by a micro-electronic-mechanical-system (MEMS). A tactile display conveys tactile sensations to users by using actuators. Traditional tactile displays consist of large size actuators, such as a motor or an ultrasound vibrator, to convey tactile feedback by vibration. In addition, the tactile sensation of traditional displays has poor resolution. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology, which is a miniature fabrication process, enables etching, sputtering and assembling of miniature structures. Recently, the technology was applied to tactile displays. For example, shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are widely used in tactile displays to convey roughness or vibration. The actuators are fabricated by a sputtering process and then thinned. The displays convey various tactile sensations, including feedback and tactile sensations of objects such as paper or wood. This paper is a review of tactile displays fabricated by MEMS technology. We also describe the fabrication processes and stimulation methods to present the potential and applications of the displays.
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