Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a life-threatening complication after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We aimed to explore the incidence and predisposing factors of BSI at our institution. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis on all consecutive adults with BSI within 6 months after LDLT performed between 2005 and 2016. For antimicrobial prophylaxis, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, and micafungin were administered. From 2011, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers were decolonized using mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate soap. Risk factors for BSI were identified by uni- and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of a total of 106 LDLTs, 42 recipients (40%) suffered BSI. The BSI group demonstrated significantly higher in-hospital mortality rates compared with the non-BSI group (24% vs. 7%, P =.01). We identified MRSA carrier (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; P <.001), ABO incompatibility (OR, 2.9; P =.03), and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73m2 (OR, 15.8; P =.02) as independent risk factors for BSI. Decolonization treatment for MRSA carriers did not reduce the incidence of all-cause BSI but reduced the frequency of BSI caused by MRSA. Conclusion: To our knowledge, for the first time, MRSA carriers were revealed to be highly vulnerable to BSI after LDLT.
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