The mineral compositions, microstructures, and mechanical properties to characterize the Paleolithic stone artifacts are discussed. The artifacts were investigated by comparing them with native rocks collected from two potential sources of Paleolithic materials located adjacent to the sites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the mineral compositions, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the microindentation hardness test and Vickers microindentation hardness test for the measurement of the mechanical properties were used to characterize the materials. It is observed from the analysis that primary humans from the Paleolithic age were capable of intelligently selecting the optimum materials to use for tools.
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