MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) regulate the levels of transcripts and serve a critical function in the regulation of tumor microenvironments. Therefore, miRNA levels in cancer tissues are thought to be potential biomarkers for immunotherapy. From a phase I trial of a vaccine treatment using 5 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A* 2402-restricted peptides (registration no. UMIN000004948), colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues were obtained from 8 patients and normal colorectal tissues from 5 patients via surgery. From a phase II trial using the same peptides (registration no. UMIN000001791), CRC tissues were obtained from 16 patients from the HLA-A* 2402-matched group and 10 patients from the HLA-A* 2402-unmatched group. These tissues were used for miRNA microarray analysis. As the first step, cancer tissues from the phase I study were used and 10 candidate miRNAs were selected by comparing the miRNA expression between two groups one with improved prognosis and the other with poor prognosis. The miRNAs were subsequently validated using the cases enrolled in the phase II study. Significantly improved prognoses were identified in 16 patients in the HLA-A* 2402-matched group with high expression of miR-196b-5p and low expression of miR-378a-3p and miR-486-5p. There was no difference in prognosis in the 10 patients in the HLA-A* 2402-unmatched group. Therefore, high miR-196b expression and low miR-378a-3p and miR-486-5p expression were indicated as useful biomarkers for prediction of the efficacy of vaccine treatment for patients with metastatic CRC. In a planned phase III study, expression levels of these 3 miRNAs (miR-196b-5p, miR-378a-3p and miR-486-5p) may be useful biomarkers for assessing patients who are likely to have an improved outcome following vaccination.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research