Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of glioma. Despite ceaseless efforts by researchers and physicians to find new therapeutic strategies, there have been no significant advances in the treatment of GBMs for several decades and most patients with GBM die within one and half years of diagnosis. Undoubtedly, one reason for this is the insufficient understanding of the initiation and progression of GBMs at the molecular level. However, recent information regarding the genetic and epigenetic alterations and the microRNAs that are aberrantly activated or inactivated in GBMs has helped elucidate the formation of GBM in more detail. Here, we describe recent advances in the understanding of the biology of GBMs.