Since the term synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome was proposed by Chamot et al. (Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 54:187-196, 1987), clinical reviews concerning this syndrome have been mainly reported from Europe. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 11 Japanese patients with SAPHO syndrome, and reviewed the clinical features of our series in comparison with those in a European large case study. In this study the major features of SAPHO syndrome were chronic osteitis of the anterior chest wall and pustulotic arthro-ostitis with middle age onset, and mucosal lesions seemed to be a minor complication of SAPHO syndrome. The non-erosive peripheral large joints arthritis and the particular HLA types (HLA-B51, B52, or A26), which had been reported to be increased in Behcet's disease, were frequently seen in SAPHO syndrome with mucosal lesions. This study also suggests that SAPHO syndrome with mucosal lesions may be part of a broader disease spectrum including Behcet's disease.
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