Post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy has been considered an effective strategy to reduce cancer recurrence and improve survival for resected non-small-cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group has completed patient accrual for a randomized Phase III study (JCOG0707), which compares the survival benefit of UFT and S-1 for completely resected pathological Stage I (T1 >2 cm and T2 in TNM classification version 6) non-small-cell lung cancer. However, there is a growing concern that those who participated in clinical trials are highly selected patients and do not represent the 'realworld' population. This multicenter observational cohort study aims to analyze the backgrounds, pattern of care and outcomes of the patients who were excluded from the JCOG0707 study during the accrual period. The results of this cohort study will be useful for external validity of the results of clinical trial such as JCOG0707.
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