Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved for various types of cancer; however, they cause a broad spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The association between the development of irAEs and the clinical benefit remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association of irAEs and the treatment efficacy in real-world practice. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on patients with recurrent or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, or gastric cancer who received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab) at the Keio University Hospital between September 2014 and January 2019. We recorded treatment-related AEs from medical records and graded them using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. We performed an overall survival (OS) analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model and the shared frailty model. Results: Of 212 patients eligible for this study, 108 experienced irAEs and 42 developed multiple irAEs. The median OS was significantly longer in the irAEs than in the no-irAE group (28.1 months vs 12.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33–0.73; P = 0.0004). Moreover, the OS of patients with multiple irAEs was significantly longer than that of patients with a single irAE (42.3 months vs 18.8 months; HR, 0.473; 95% CI, 0.346–0.647; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our single-center retrospective study revealed a significant tendency associating the development of multiple irAEs with favorable prognoses.
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