Mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is extremely rare. The review of the literature revealed only five cases of mycotic SGA aneurysms reported to date and none had a concomitant superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm. We describe a 64-year-old man with mycotic aneurysms of both the SGA and the SMA. The patient was referred to our hospital because of SMA embolism caused by bacterial endocarditis following mitral valve plasty. He was treated conservatively, but monitoring using computerized tomography (CT) scanning showed the development and growth of the SGA and the SMA aneurysms. The SMA aneurysm was resected surgically, and the SGA lesion was treated by means of selective embolization. For the treatment of SGA aneurysms, prompt and precise preoperative evaluation is important. When the anatomical feature and size of the aneurysm is suitable, endovascular treatment may be the first-line treatment, providing an efficacious and safe alternative to traditional surgical repair.
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