Disease-free survival in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL (Ph+ALL) is very poor, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is currently considered the only procedure with curative potential. To identify factors affecting transplant outcome, we analyzed the data from 197 Ph+ALL patients aged 16 years or older who had undergone allo-HSCT. The 5-year survival rates were 34% for patients in first complete remission (CR), 21% for those in second or subsequent CR, and 9% for those with active disease (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed four pre-transplant factors as significantly associated with better survival: younger age, CR at the time of transplantation, conditioning with total body irradiation, and HLA-identical sibling donor (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, P =0.0301, P =0.0412, respectively). Severe acute GVHD increased the risk of treatment-related mortality (TRM) without diminishing the risk of relapse, whereas chronic GVHD reduced the risk of relapse without increasing the risk of TRM. Thus, patients who developed extensive chronic GVHD had better survivals (P =0.0217), and those who developed grade III -IV acute GVHD had worse survivals (P =0.0023) than did the others.
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