This population-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the mean corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation (CV), and hexagonality (HEX), and their associations with myopia in Japanese adults living in Chikusei city. Of 7109 participants with available data, 5713 (2331 male and 3382 female) participants were eligible for analysis. After assessing the relationship between participant characteristics and spherical equivalent refraction (SER), the association of SER with the abnormal value of ECD (< 2000 cells/mm), CV (≥ 0.40), and HEX (≤ 50%) were determined using the logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders (age, intraocular pressure, keratometric power, height, and antihypertensive drug use). In male participants, there was no statistically significant relationships between SER and endothelial parameters. In female participants, compared to emmetropia, SER ≤ − 6 D had significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having the abnormal value of CV (OR = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39–3.10) and HEX (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.29–3.23), adjusted for potential confounders, indicating that the high myopia was associated with the abnormal values of CV and HEX. Further adjustment for contact lenses wear partly attenuated these associations. Association between the SER and ECD was not detected.
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