Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread dramatically worldwide. Nafamostat mesylate inhibits intracellular entry of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and is believed to have therapeutic potential for treating patients with COVID-19. In this study, patients with moderate COVID-19 who were admitted to our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-one patients received monotherapy with nafamostat mesylate, and 33 patients were treated conservatively. Nafamostat mesylate was administered with continuous intravenous infusion for an average of 4.5 days. Compared with the conservative treatment, nafamostat mesylate did not improve outcomes or laboratory data 5 days after admission. In addition, no significant differences in laboratory data 5 days after admission and outcomes in high-risk patients were observed. The incidence of hyperkalemia was significantly higher in the nafamostat mesylate group; however, none of the patients required additional treatment. In conclusion, monotherapy with nafamostat mesylate did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with moderate COVID-19. This study did not examine the therapeutic potential of combining nafamostat mesylate with other antiviral agents, and further investigation is required. Because of the high incidence of hyperkalemia, regular laboratory monitoring is required during the use of nafamostat mesylate.
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