Because the mucosa is the major entry route for most pathogens, the development of mucosal vaccines is a rational approach for protecting against these undesired agents. Mucosal administration of vaccine antigen is useful for non-infectious chronic diseases as well, because of its advantages over injection routes, including comparable efficacy in the induction of systemic immune responses, less pain, and no risk of adverse events at the injection site. However, because it is difficult to effectively induce and regulate antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses when antigen alone is mucosally administered, an appropriate form of mucosal delivery vehicle must be used. Antigen delivery systems involving nanogels, which act as artificial chaperones and mucosal adhesives, are a promising approach to overcoming this problem. Here, we introduce current perspectives regarding the development of nanogel-based nasal vaccines for both infectious and lifestyle-related diseases.
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