The Japanese Three Academic Societies Joint Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance Committee has conducted a nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and rates of isolation in 6 otolaryngological diseases. The surveillance program was conducted in the otorhinolaryngological departments of 29 universities, and their 26 affiliated hospitals. Patients suffering from acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, acute nasal sinusitis, chronic nasal sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess between January 2011 and June 2012 were investigated. The collected swab or incision samples were cultivated for microbial identification, and the drug susceptibility of detected bacteria was measured at the Kitasato University Research Center for Infections and Antimicrobials. The surveillance focused on three gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Fusobacterium spp.). Bacterial susceptibility to 39 antimicrobial drugs was investigated. We compared bacterial isolation ratio of each disease in this surveillance from those of past 4 times surveillance which we performed formerly, and we also compared percentage of main drug resistant strains from those of past 4 times surveillance. The age composition between this time and former surveillances was not statistically significant by student-t test.We were unable to completely resolve the rise in resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, penicillin-intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase non-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, beta-lactamase producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, and beta-lactamase producing amoxicillin clavulanic acid-resistant H. influenzae. We suggest promoting the proper usage of antimicrobial drugs in order to avoid the spread of these bacteria.
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