Background: The purpose of this study was to clarify the implementation rate of multidisciplinary heart failure (HF) care and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Japan, as well as the relationship between implementation rates and characteristics of the facility. Methods and Results: Survey participants were cardiologists who are members of the Japan Heart Failure Society and belonged to 1 of 845 medical institutions that are members of the Japan Heart Failure Society, as of April 2016. A total of 288 institutions (34.1%) returned the questionnaire. The percentages of hospitals implementing multidisciplinary HF care were 78.5% for inpatients and 32.6% for outpatients with HF. Inpatient and outpatient CR for HF had implementation rates of 80.4% and 56.5%, respectively. In addition, very few HF patients (7.3%, 3,741/51,323 patients) received outpatient CR. Both the presence of nurses certified in chronic HF care and registered CR instructors on staff were consistently associated with implementation of multidisciplinary HF care, and Japanese Circulation Society training hospitals, lower number of hospital beds, and presence of registered CR instructors on staff were consistently associated with implementation of CR. Conclusions: This first nationwide survey demonstrated that the implementation rates of multidisciplinary care and CR for HF, especially for outpatients, are low in Japan. Skilled healthcare professionals are expected to play important roles in the widespread implementation of this type of HF care in Japan.
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