Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice. The rates of glucose phosphorylation in astroglia were evaluated using the [ 14 C]deoxyglucose method. PPP activity was measured using [1- 14 C]glucose and [6- 14 C]glucose after acute (60 min) or chronic (15 hr) exposure to dopamine. ROS production was measured using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The involvement of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) or nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system was evaluated using Nrf2 gene knockout mice, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for heme oxygenase-1. Acute exposure to dopamine elicited increases in astroglial glucose consumption with lactate release. PPP activity in astroglia was robustly enhanced independently of Na + -dependent monoamine transporters. In contrast, chronic exposure to dopamine induced moderate increases in PPP activity via the Keap1/Nrf2 system. ROS production from dopamine increased gradually over 12 hr. Dopamine induced neuronal cell damage that was prevented by coculturing with astroglia but not with Nrf2-deficient astroglia. Dopamine-enhanced astroglial PPP activity in both acute and chronic manners may possibly reduce neuronal oxidative stress.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology