Background: Several recent studies suggest that serum anti-p53 antibodies (s-p53-Abs) may be combined with other markers to detect esophageal and colorectal cancer. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of s-p53-Abs detection of a new electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA; Elecsys anti-p53). Methods: Elecsys anti-p53 assay was used to analyze the level of s-p53-Abs in blood sera from patients with esophageal or colorectal cancer taken before treatment. Control blood sera from healthy volunteers, patients with benign diseases, and patients with autoimmune diseases served as a reference. In addition, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA21-1) were assessed in patients with esophageal cancer, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 were assessed in patients with colorectal cancer. Results: Samples from 281 patients with esophageal cancer, 232 patients with colorectal cancer, and 532 controls were included in the study. The median value of s-p53-Abs in control samples was < 0.02 μg/mL (range < 0.02–29.2 μg/mL). Assuming 98% specificity, the cut-off value was determined as 0.05 μg/mL. s-p53-Abs were detected in 20% (57/281) of patients with esophageal cancer and 18% (42/232) of patients with colorectal cancer. In combination with SCC-Ag and CEA, respectively, s-p53-Abs detected 51% (144/281) of patients with esophageal and 53% (124/232) of patients with colorectal cancer. Conclusions: The new s-p53-Abs assay Elecsys anti-p53 was useful in detecting esophageal and colorectal cancers with high specificity. Adding s-p53-Abs to conventional markers significantly improved the overall detection rates.
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