Scheduling in flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) is described as an NP-Hard problem. Its complexity has increased significantly in line with the development of FMS over the past years. This paper presents a non-dominated sorting biogeography-based optimization (NSBBO) for scheduling problem of FMS having multi loading-unloading and shortcuts infused in the reentrant characteristics. This model is formulated to identify the near optimal trade-off solutions capable of addressing the bi-objectives of minimization of makespan and total earliness. The goal is to simultaneously determine the best machine assignment and job sequencing to satisfy both objectives. We propose the development of NSBBO by substituting the standard linear function of emigration-immigration rate with three approaches based on sinusoidal, quadratic and trapezoidal models. A selection of test problems was examined to analyze the effectiveness, efficiency and diversity levels of the proposed approaches as compared to standard NSBBO and NSGA-II. The results have shown that the NSBBO-trapezoidal model performed favorably and is comparable to current existing models. We conclude that the developed NSBBO and its variants are suitable alternative methods to achieve the bi-objective satisfaction of reentrant FMS scheduling problem.
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