Periodontal diseases are inflammatory infectious diseases that affect the periodontal tissue. Macrophages play a central role in inflammatory conditions, leading to the destruction of tissues. Identifying the signaling molecules secreted by macrophages would be valuable to the study of these diseases. Here, we present non-targeted analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) for the profiling of extracellular metabolites released during macrophage activation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of a mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264. 7 was used as a model system. Cells were treated without (control) or with LPS for 22 h and, after washing, were incubated for 1 h in phosphate-buffered saline. The accumulation of metabolites in the culture supernatant was monitored. LPS treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and citrulline in the culture medium. RAW264. 7 cells produced 46 metabolites and 66% of these showed significant changes (P < 0.05) following cell activation. In particular, the production of leucine, hypoxanthine, choline, putrecine, N 8-acetylspermidine, succinate, itaconate, and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate was significantly increased by cell activation (P < 0.001). Significantly elevated production of lactate and glycine was also observed. Here, we present the first catalog of the up and down-regulation of the various metabolites secreted by macrophages following inflammatory activation.
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