Most infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD) are caused by common bacteria, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria are rare. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of PD patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections were investigated at our hospital. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in 11 patients (exit-site infection, tunnel infection, and peritonitis in 3, 5, and 3 patients, respectively). Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium abscessus were identified in 4, 2, and 2 patients, respectively. Most patients with peritonitis or tunnel infection required catheter removal. During the study period (2007 – 2017), peritonitis occurred in 44 patients, including 3 patients (6.8%) with non-tuberculous mycobacterial peritonitis. When non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection occurs, multi-agent antibiotic therapy, unroofing surgery, and/or catheter replacement should be performed to prevent peritonitis.
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