The exact mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinom a development in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis remain unclear. In this study, we used a new class of high-fat diet, which could induce hepatocellular carcinoma development without the use of general chemical carcinogens or knockout mice. We investigated the correlation between hepatocellular carcinoma and oxidative stress/anti- oxidant effects after depletion of the gut microbiota by treatment with antibiotics. Mice fed with the steatohepatitis-inducing high- fat diet (STHD-01) for 41 weeks developed hepatocellular carci- noma. Antibiotic-treatment in mice fed with STHD-01 significantly depleted the gut microbiota and significantly ameliorated liver injury/histology. The tumor numbers of hepatocellular carcinoma were dramatically decreased by the antibiotics-treatment. We analyzed the factors involved in oxidative stress and anti-oxidant effects. Oxidative stress was elevated in mice fed with STHD-01, whereas some anti-oxidant factors were significantly elevated after antibiotics treatment. These results suggest that the gut microbiota is a key factor in improving oxidative stress induced by STHD-01 feeding.
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