Flow around a square cylinder controlled using plasma actuators (PAs) is numerically investigated by direct numerical simulation in order to clarify the most effective location of actuator installation and to elucidate the mechanism of control effect. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and the free-stream velocity is set to be 100 to study the fundamental effect of PAs on two-dimensional vortex shedding, and three different locations of PAs are considered. The mean drag and the root-mean-square of lift fluctuations are found to be reduced by 51% and 99% in the case where two opposing PAs are aligned vertically on the rear surface. In that case, a jet flow similar to a base jet is generated by the collision of the streaming flows induced by the two opposing PAs, and the vortex shedding is completely suppressed. The simulation results are ultimately revisited in the frame of linear sensitivity analysis, whose computational cost is much lower than that of performing the full simulation. A good agreement is reported for low control amplitudes, which allows further discussion of the linear optimal arrangement for any number of PAs.
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