We report the study on remanent vortices attached to rough boundaries in superfluid 4He after the turbulent transition. We used 2.6 μm vibrating wires with smooth surfaces and rough surfaces, a cover box and slow cooling method, in order to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the condition and the number of vortices attached to a wire. The responses of the wire with smooth surfaces show large hysteresis at the turbulent transition. This result indicates that remanent vortices attached between the wire and surrounding boundaries cause turbulence. At first sweep of driving force of the wire with rough surfaces, we also observed hysteresis as large as the case of the smooth wire: at the other sweeps, however, small hysteresis was observed. These results indicate that once turbulence is generated at a wire velocity during first sweep, vortex lines newly attach between rough surfaces of the wire, which easily cause turbulence at a low wire velocity. Therefore, we conclude that a smooth wire can reduce the number of vortices attached to a wire.
ASJC Scopus subject areas