We retrospectively investigated the incidence of genitourinary tract infection in 5895 patients who underwent transrectal and/or transperineal prostate biopsy procedure between January and December 2011 at 46 institutions belonging to Japanese Research Group for Urinary Tract Infection (JRGU). The total rate of genitourinary tract infection after prostate biopsy was 0.76%, while that following transrectal procedure was 0.83% and following transperineal procedure was 0.57%, which were not significantly different. In contrast, febrile infection associated with a fever (≥38 °C) occurred significantly more frequently after transrectal (0.71%) than transperineal (0.16%) approach (P = 0.04). Notably, in infectious cases, Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated. Of the 9 E. coli strains isolated by urine culture, 6 (66.7%) produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and 7 (77.8%) showed levofloxacin resistance. Similarly, of 6 E. coli strains isolated by blood culture, 4 (66.7%) produced ESBL and 6 (100%) showed levofloxacin resistance. When the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) with levofloxacin for the patients undergoing transrectal or transperineal biopsy was compared between a single dose (500 mg) and that given for 2 or more days, no significant difference was observed for the rate of infection (transrectal: 0.82% vs. 1.04%, p = 0.94; transperineal: 0.30% vs. 0.46%, p = 0.68).
ASJC Scopus subject areas