Various asymmetric orbifold models based on chiral shifts and chiral reflections are investigated. Special attention is devoted to the consistency of the models with two fundamental principles for asymmetric orbifolds: modular invariance and the existence of a proper Hilbert space formulation for states and operators. The interplay between these two principles is non-trivial. It is shown, for example, that their simultaneous requirement forces the order of a chiral reflection to be 4, instead of the naive 2. A careful explicit construction is given of the associated one-loop partition functions. At higher loops, the partition functions of asymmetric orbifolds are built from the chiral blocks of associated symmetric orbifolds, whose pairings are determined by degenerations to one-loop.
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