A prospective study was conducted to clarify the 1-year changes in lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in premenopausal amateur runners and to determine whether jumping and muscle-strengthening exercises have additive effects on the bone parameters in these runners. Thirty-six premenopausal amateur runners were recruited and were divided into the following two groups: a jumping plus muscle-strengthening exercise group (n =21) and a control group (n =15). All participants continued their running practice for 1 year, and the lumbar spine and total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored. For all participants, the lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased modestly after 1 year (1.31% and 1.54%, respectively) in addition to increases in the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels (13.2%-27.8%), indicating mild effects of running activity on bone turnover and BMD at clinically relevant skeletal sites. Jumping plus muscle-strengthening exercises did not significantly influence any bone parameters; however, it was difficult to draw definite conclusions because compliance was poor. These results suggest that long-distance running at the recreational level may be useful in maintaining bone health in premenopausal women.
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