Objective: The study objective was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the second-generation, low-profile RelayPro (Terumo Aortic) thoracic endograft for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm or penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Method: A prospective, international, nonblinded, nonrandomized, pivotal trial analyzed a primary safety end point of major adverse events at 30 days (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, renal/respiratory failure, paralysis, bowel ischemia, procedural blood loss) and a primary effectiveness end point of treatment success at 1 year (technical success, patency, absence of aneurysm rupture, type I/III endoleaks, stent fractures, reinterventions, aneurysm expansion, and migration) compared with performance goals from the previous generation Relay pivotal study. The study was conducted in 36 centers in the United States and Japan and enrolled participants between 2017 and 2019. Results: The study population of 110 patients had a median (interquartile range) age of 76 (70-81) years, 69 (62.7%) were male, and 43 (39.1%) were Asian. Patients were treated for 76 fusiform aneurysms (69%), 24 saccular aneurysms (22%), and 10 penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (9%). Most patients (82.7%) were treated with a non-bare stent configuration. Technical success was 100%. The median (interquartile range) procedure time was 91 (64-131) minutes, and the deployment time was 16 (10-25) minutes. A total of 50 patients (73.5%) in the US cohort had percutaneous access, whereas centers in Japan used only surgical cutdown. The 30-day composite major adverse events rate was 6.4% (95% upper confidence interval, 11.6%; P = .0002): 2 strokes, 2 procedural blood losses greater than 1000 mL requiring transfusion, 2 paralysis events, and 1 renal failure. Primary effectiveness was 89.2% (lower 95% confidence interval, 81.8%; P = .0185). Nine subjects experienced 11 events (1 aneurysm expansion, 6 secondary interventions, and 4 type I endoleaks). There was no loss of stent-graft patency, no rupture, no fractures, and no migration. Conclusions: The low-profile RelayPro thoracic endograft met the study primary end points and demonstrated satisfactory 30-day safety and 1-year effectiveness for the treatment of patients with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta or penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers. Follow-up is ongoing to evaluate longer-term outcomes and durability.
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