This paper presents past and recent trends of optical networks and addresses the future directions. First, we describe path networks with the historical backgrounds and trends. path networks have advanced by using various multiplexing technologies. They include time-division multiplexing (TDM), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and wavelengthdivision multiplexing (WDM). ATM was later succeeded to multi-protocol label switching (MPLS). Second, we present generalized MPLS technologies (GMPLS). In GMPLS, the label concept of MPLS is extended to other labels used in TDM, WDM, and fiber networks. GMPLS enables network operators to serve networks deployed by different technologies with a common protocol suite of GMPLS. Third, we describe multi-layer traffic engineering and a path computation element (PCE). Multi-layer traffic engineering designs and controls networks considering resource usages of more than one layer. This leads to use network resources more efficiently than the single-layer traffic engineering adopted independently for each layer. PCE is defined as a network element that computes paths, which are used for traffic engineering. Then, we address software-defined networks, which put the designed network functions into the programmable data plane by way of the management plane. We describe the evaluation from GMPLS to software defined networking (SDN) and transport SDN. Fifth, we describe the advanced devices and switches for optical networks. Finally, we address advances in networking technologies and future directions on optical networking.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering