Background. The atrial epicardial wall of pediatric patients was topographically assessed to identify the optimal position for temporary atrial pacing. Methods. Unipolar electrodes were fixed at the cephalic wall between the right and left atrial appendages, the interatrial groove, and the right atrial appendage of fifteen pediatric patients who underwent definitive surgical repair. The performance of the three electrodes in terms of pacing patterns and six combinations of bipolar pacing were evaluated in terms of the pacing threshold, P-wave amplitude, slew rate, and lead impedance. Results. Unipolar pacing of the right atrial appendage showed a significantly higher threshold than the other groups. A bipolar configuration of the cephalic atrial wall and interatrial groove had a significantly higher P-wave amplitude than groups without the electrode at the cephalic atrial wall, and a significantly higher slew rate than a unipolar configuration of the atrial appendage. Conclusions. Bipolar pacing with the negative electrode at the cephalic atrial wall and the indifferent electrode at the interatrial groove is the most efficient method for pediatric patients.
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