For quantum sensing, it is vital to develop an efficient technique for determining the quantum state of the sensor. We optimize the weighting of the photoluminescence intensity for readout of the spin state of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. We find that adopting a physical model that considers the optical transitions and relaxations of the NV center allows for an efficient readout. Our method improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the readout by 5.4% in a short time of 3 s, while the existing methods typically require 1 min of integration time. We also show that our technique enhances the readout of the nuclear spin memory. The demonstrated way is helpful for a wide range of measurements, from a few minutes to several days.
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