Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus) tracks the route to and from the breeding sites using the olfactory cues from the migration route and not from the destination (Ishii et al., 1995). We recorded a slow extracellular potential change (electro-olfactogram or EOG) evoked on the olfactory epithelium by applying an olfactory stimulus with an air stream. In September toads, only a simple typical EOG that is common in various vertebrate species was observed. Oscillatory potential changes (OSC) superimposed on the typical EOG were observed in the breeding season when studied throughout a year. There were no sexual differences in the occurrence and the amplitude of the OSC. Oscillatory potentials were observed also from the olfactory nerve of the brain. The OSC in the olfactory epithelium remained even after denervation. In addition, it was suggested that there are multiple sites of OSC initiation in the olfactory epithelium. These results suggest an intimate relationship between OSC appearance and the breeding migration in the toad.
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