Introduction: Significant advances have been made since the development of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) targeting EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, lung cancer cells eventually acquire resistance to those agents. Osimertinib (AZD9291) has been developed as 3rd generation EGFR-TKI with activities against sensitizing mutations and T790 M resistance mutation, which account for about 50% of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to 1st or 2nd generation EGFR-TKIs. A recent phase I/II clinical trial with osimertinib for advanced NSCLC patients with known sensitizing EGFR mutations and documented disease progression on prior EGFR-TKIs revealed promising effect with acceptable toxicities. Areas covered: This article summarizes current understanding and available preclinical and clinical data on osimertinib and also discusses future directions. The literature search included PubMed and the latest articles from international conferences. Expert commentary: The development of osimertinib has provided new therapeutic options for NSCLC patients harboring T790 M. Compared with other EGFR-TKIs including rociletinib, osimertinib seems to possess an advantage with respect to the effect and safety profile among existing EGFR-TKIs. However, tumor progression still occurs even when treating with osimertinib. A further understanding of the mechanisms of resistance is eagerly anticipated in order to develop next generation EGFR-TKIs.
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