Background: Osteoid osteoma accounts for approximately 10% of all benign bone tumors. The most common sites of osteoid osteoma are the subcortical shaft and metaphyses of long bones, but any other skeletal bone site can be involved. The acetabulum is a rare site according to past reports. This site presents challenges to optimal management because it is anatomically difficult to approach, and because its rarity leads to limited experience with therapeutic procedures. Here, we report for the first time a rare case of osteoid osteoma in the acetabulum that was successfully treated via resection of the nidus and ablation using a standard electrosurgical generator under computed tomographic guidance. Case presentation: A 9-year-old Japanese girl presented at a clinic with left hip pain without apparent cause for 1 month. She was diagnosed as having coxitis simplex. However, her pain did not change for 1 year and she was admitted to another hospital where osteoid osteoma in her left acetabulum was suspected. She was then referred to our hospital approximately 1 year after first symptom presentation, where she presented with severe left hip pain and was completely unable to walk. Computed tomography examinations revealed a well-demarcated 5 mm mass with bone sclerosis in her left acetabulum. The mass was characterized by low intensity on T1 and high intensity on T2 magnetic resonance images. These findings were consistent with osteoid osteoma of left acetabulum. She underwent computed tomography-guided resection of nidus and ablation using a standard electrosurgical generator. A histological examination confirmed acetabular osteoid osteoma. Complete pain relief was achieved after the procedure and she experienced no complications. She could walk without any pain at the final follow-up 1 year post-treatment and no local recurrence was observed. Conclusions: We successfully treated acetabulum osteoid osteoma without any symptom recurrence by computed tomography-guided resection and ablation using a standard electrosurgical generator. In addition, we preserved our patient's sciatic nerve and triradiate cartilage. Our report provides evidence that a computed tomography-guided procedure should be considered the treatment of choice for osteoid osteoma of the acetabulum because it is a less invasive alternative to en bloc resection.
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