Several studies of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) have reported that adolescents and young adults (AYAs) experience higher transplant-related mortality than that in younger children. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of a similar comparison of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients who received SCT. We analyzed 918 patients aged 30 years and younger who received their first stem cell transplantation for NHL. Of the allogeneic transplant patients, children and AYAs did not significantly differ in survival rate, event-free survival rate, relapse rate, or transplant-related mortality. However, 5-year transplant-related mortality after autologous transplantation was significantly higher in children than in AYAs (5.1% in children vs. 0.8% in AYAs, P = 0.0043). The cause of transplant-related death in three of four children was interstitial pneumonitis. In NHL patients, transplantation results in AYAs were not inferior than those in children.
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