Purpose: In 1996, the Japan Wilms Tumor Study (JWiTS) group was founded to elucidate the efficacy and safety of the regimen established by the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) group in the USA, and a multicenter cooperative study (JWiTS-1) was started in Japan. This report reviews the results of JWiTS-1. Methods: A total of 307 patients with malignant renal tumor were enrolled in the JWiTS-1 study between 1996 and 2005. Central pathological diagnosis and follow-up data were available in 210 cases. The protocol regimens were similar to the NWTS-5 regimens. Clinical stage was classified according to the Japanese Staging System. Results: Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 91.1% for nephroblastoma, 72.9% for clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), and 22.2% for rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK). In the nephroblastoma patients, 5-year OS was 90.5% for stage I disease, 92.2% for stage II, 90.9% for stage III, 86.7% for stage IV, and 78.7% for stage V. Conclusions: The OS of patients in the JWiTS-1 study were comparable with the results of other multicenter studies in the USA and Europe. The outcome for patients with nephroblastoma and CCSK was fair. In contrast, the cure rate for those with RTK was not satisfactory. New treatment strategies are needed for patients with RTK.
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