Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major threat to the health and lives of hospitalized patients. This study was conducted to clarify the real-world outcomes of pulmonary embolectomy. Methods and Results: Retrospective investigation of 355 patients who underwent pulmonary embolectomy for acute PE was conducted using the Japanese Cardiovascular Surgery Database. Risk factors for operative death within 30 days after pulmonary embolectomy and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including operative death, postoperative stroke and postoperative coma, were analyzed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was required preoperatively in 27.6%, and preoperative veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed in 26.5%. Urgent or emergency operation was performed in 93% of patients. Operative mortality rate was 73/355 (20.6%). Incidence of MACE was 97/355 (27.3%). In univariate analysis, preoperative predictors of death were obesity, renal dysfunction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver injury, recent myocardial infarction, shock, refractory shock, CPR, heart failure, inotrope use, poor left ventricular function, preoperative arrhythmia and tricuspid regurgitation. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for operative death were heart failure (P=0.013), poor left ventricular function (P=0.007), and respiratory failure (P=0.001). Poor left ventricular function (P=0.033), preoperative CPR (P=0.002) and respiratory failure (P=0.007) were independent risk factors for MACE. Conclusions: The outcomes of pulmonary embolectomy were acceptable, considering the urgency and preoperative comorbidities of patients. Early triage of patients with hemodynamically unstable PE is important.
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