Objectives: To clarify factors affecting 5-year survival rates and relapse rates after spontaneous regression (SR) of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: This retrospective longitudinal study comprised 232 patients with RA diagnosed with LPDs between January 2000 and March 2017 at eight hospitals in Japan. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to identify predictive factors. Results: Among all patients, 1-, 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 89.5%, 86.1%, and 78.2%, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed four 5-year survival risk factors assessed at diagnosis: age above 70 years (p =.002), deep lymphadenopathy and/or more than one extranodal lesion (p =.008), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/Zubrod performance status of 2–4 (p =.004), and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) histology (p =.047). Among 143 patients who achieved SR, 2- and 5-year relapse rates were 14.2% and 24.9%, respectively. CHL histology (p =.003) and serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels exceeding 2000 IU/L (p =.014) were associated with post-SR relapse-free survival. Blood lymphocyte counts were significantly lower at relapse than at 3–6 months prior (p <.001). Conclusion: Assessment of the above risk factors and routine inspection of blood lymphocyte counts could aid in the care management of LPDs in RA.
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