Objective: We hypothesized that there may be a prognostic difference in age between the genders and evaluated the influence of gender-adjusted age on prognosis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients. Methods: A total of 839 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma from a retrospective multi-institutional cohort were included. The patients were divided into four groups consisting of males (N = 610) and females (N = 229) according to age ((i) <60 years, (ii) 60-69.9 years, (iii) 70-79.9 years and (iv) ≥ 80 years), and we evaluated the associations of patient age and gender with clinicopathological features and oncological outcomes following radical nephroureterectomy. The median follow-up duration was 34 months. Results: Disease recurrence occurred in 249 patients and 192 patients died of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The 3-year cancer-specific survival rates were (i) 84.3%, (ii) 80.2%, (iii) 77.1% and (iv) 71.5% in the entire patient population (P = 0.001); (i) 84.5%, (ii) 81.1%, (iii) 76.8% and (iv) 69.7% in males (P = 0.010); and (i) 83.3%, (ii) 76.9%, (iii) 77.7% and (iv) 72.9% in females (P = 0.287), respectively. No significant differences between disease recurrence and age were found in the male or female population. In multivariate analysis, older age was an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival, in addition to advanced pT stage, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement in males. In contrast, age was not associated with cancer-specific survival in females, while high grade, advanced pT stage, the presence of lymph node involvement and multifocal tumor were independent predictors. Conclusion: The results indicate that gender-adjusted age might be a new prognostic factor in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients.
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