Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify a high-risk or low-risk population for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with breast cancer treated with a current standard 3-drug antiemetic regimen and receiving anthracycline. Methods: We analyzed data from chemotherapy-naive Japanese patients with breast cancer, who had received the first cycle of anthracycline-based regimen and were treated with a 3-drug combination of aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone. This study was carried out at Ehime University Hospital (Toon, Japan) using electronic medical records from May 2011 to June 2017. The primary end point was complete response (CR), which was defined as no emesis and no use of rescue medication. Findings: A total of 103 patients were included in this study. The percentages of patients who had a CR in the overall, acute, and delayed phases were 35.0%, 40.8%, and 50.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age <55 years and body mass index <27.5 kg/m2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for CR failure in the overall and acute phases. In contrast, a history of alcohol habit was significantly associated with a decreased risk for CR failure in overall phase. Implications: The present findings suggest that, among patients with breast cancer receiving anthracycline and treated with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone, patients younger than 55 years and having a body mass index <27.5 kg/m2 are high-risk populations for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, whereas those with a history of habitual alcohol consumption is a low-risk one.
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